In the West, modern standard concert pitch for the note A has constantly been changing over the centuries and since 1955, it has currently been set by the International Organization for Standardization at 440 Hz - but if anyone dares to Google search "A at 432 Hz", one is drowned in a whole tsunami of gigabytes of 'information' about how 432 Hz is the frequency of the cosmos, that this is a 'spiritual' frequency, that this was the reference pitch used by all ancient civilizations and that the 440 Hz we now use for A, was all a Nazi conspiracy to make mankind become more paranoid !

There is even a surprisingly common New Age assertion that 432 Hz is a "healing frequency" which magically matches the resonant frequency of human DNA -
the real irony of the belief in the "healing frequency" stuff to do with 432 Hz, is that this has gotten confused amongst hard-core New Age believers with yet another New Age unproven assertion about primordial "Solfeggio" healing frequencies which are apparently at 528 Hz!

The most bizarre New Age muddled mayhem I have so far come across in my research, is the following allegation that even the pitch of our modern day dialing tone is an evil conspiracy to corrupt humanity with the "evil" sound of A at 440 Hz:

How on Earth did all this ridiculous "virtual intellectual Voodoo" come about, and is there any actual body of truth to be gleaned among the mountain of mumbo jumbo? As the ever skeptical philosopher, in my epistomological efforts to get to grips with what is true and what is not, I still adhere to the correspondence theory of truth, which roughly states that nothing is true, unless it corresponds either to facts, or in the absence of definitive facts, something is only likely to be true if there is an overwhelming body of arguments to support a specific assertion...or I might as well believe that the Oort Cloud is actually comprised of billions of flying tea cups hurtling around at the edge of the Solar System, just because lots of people on the Internet tell me this is so!

If there are 2 or more hypothesis which could be used to account for the same set of facts, then according to the common sense philosophical tool of Occam's Razor, which as very neatly summed up in the following quote from Wikipedia, states that:

"the one with the fewest assumptions should be selected. Other, more complicated solutions may ultimately prove correct, but—in the absence of certainty—the fewer assumptions that are made, the better"

Using this "philosophical tool kit" approach to my investigative efforts then, I just really needed now to attempt to actually answer the question, why, from this noble scientific approach to music in the early 18th century, where on Earth did all the New Age nonsense about the vibrating frequency of DNA and the even more ridiculous notion that this was some form of primordial ancient, original tuning, and the Nazi conspiracy theory about Geobbels raising standard pitch to make all of humanity paranoid by infliltrating our telephone dialing tones etc, actually 

In order to begin to address these issues with some vestige of reason, I therefore opened a discussion thread on Facebook, to get some more invaluable input on these issues, to try and work out what was fact from fiction! Here is a quote of some of this discussion thread, which contained the most interesting revelations about the actual origin of all these tangled webs of mostly paranoid New Age nonsense:

"The Solfeggio Miracle Hz is 528 Hz, and a completely different movement. In fact, the scumbag Len Horowitz is against 432 Hz and slanders it at every opportunity. The 528 Hz scale he speaks of isn't musical. What Horowitz does, is steal other peoples works, claims it as his own then exploits people for their cash. When people started pointing out that his scale sounded rubbish and not at all musical, he simply 'adjusted' the bollocks he was selling to then be about 'using frequencies to heal', he just changes his story so that hes never wrong. obviously I have a very low opinion of the guy. 528 Hz was started by him.

The original frequencies and solfeg' research was done by Joseph Puelio from whom Horowitz stole the work, changed it, then sold it as his own in a bastardized version. Horowitz also tries to sue anyone who he perceives as a threat to his work, details on the times his done this are available on the internet. He's also associated with Drunvalo Melchizedek who is just as much a 'bad egg'. Don't listen to either of them would be my recommendation. I believe Horowitz probably pulled the DNA theory out of his ass.

As for Joseph Goebels, he was a chief propaganda guy who worked for the Nazis during the ww's. He also at one point recommended 440 Hz as a standard, though this was not the time it became standardized. A more valid complaint about the standardization of 440 Hz is that it was voted upon by American jazz musicians, and many classical music companies/whatever were left out of the process entirely. So people took the 'propaganda' aspect of Joseph, and the 440hz standardization, and concluded 'mind control conspiracy'. 
" (Tomusan Mitcheru)

A very comprehensive blog on the subject of what is fact and fiction in the whole "432 Hz Saga" can be also be found in an article posted by Roel Hollander, entitled "432 Hz - What is Related and What is Not?"In this very detailed article, Hollander quite rightly states that "The number 432 can be found in a large number of “things”, in music, sacred geometry, astronomy, philosophy, religion, et cetera. But, numbers without units are nothing more then symbols, and symbols don't sound. In order for something to “relate”, there have to be units and characteristics that match."

The only other objective, rational information I have so far found on this whole convoluted issue, is the following passage on Wikipedia on Scientific Tuning - about the efforts in the 18th century to standardize the ever rising pitch. The whole 432 Hz thing was first suggested by Joseph Sauveur, in an effort to maintain rational ratios between the musical intervals:

"Sauveur proposed that all musical pitches should be based on a son fixe (fixed sound), that is, one unspecified note set to 100 Hz, from which all others would be derived. In 1713, Sauveur changed his proposal to one based on C4 set to 256 Hz; this was later called "philosophical pitch" or "Sauveur pitch". Sauveur's push to standardize a concert pitch was strongly resisted by the musicians with whom he was working, and the proposed standard was not adopted. The notion was revived periodically, including by mathematician Sir John Herschel and composer John Pyke Hullah in the mid-19th century, but never established as a standard.

In the 19th century, Italian composer Giuseppe Verdi tried to stop the increase in pitch to which orchestras were tuned. In 1874 he wrote his Requiem using the official French standard diapason normal pitch of A4 tuned to 435 Hz. Later, he indicated that 432 Hz would be slightly better for orchestras"

If anyone out there would like to please enlighten me further on the
actual origins of the 432 Hz thing, please do leave your comments at the bottom of this blog!


In order to objectively test the 432 Hertz thing, in 2014, I recorded a CD album, "The Lyre of Apollo: The Chelys Lyre of Ancient Greece"

My objective observations? Yes, the resulting music does sound calmer, but the skeptical philosopher in me still assumes that it is by far a simpler explanation (and therefore, by Occam's Razor, a much more likely explanation!), that rather than this calming effect results from the 'fact' that 432 Hz is the frequency of the cosmos with which my lyre playing is somehow magically resonating with etc, exactly the same calming effect would happen at 431 or 421 or whatever slightly lower Hz vibration, due to the decrease in excitement induced to the listener by the slightly lower pitch - it is the subtly lower pitch which has the calming effect, not some specific slightly lower pitch at 432 Hz - a completely arbitrary frequency, which simply happens to be at a very slightly lower pitch, in my opinion, given the lack of any other definitive evidence to the contrary. I have and always will be, a great advocate of Occam's Razor...I'm sure original Baroque music sounded even more "at one with the Universe", due to the even lower reference pitch of 415 Hz!

Indeed, back in 1998, I was lucky enough to acquire from a second hand music store, a Baroque fiddle made by Remerus Liessem in 1753, still with it's original shallower angled fingerboard and thinner bass bar, both setup to the lower Baroque pitch. When I played this violin at the lower Baroque pitch, it sounded far more calming to the ear than the same music played at modern concert pitch. Increasing concert pitch increases the feeling of tension, brilliance and excitement in the listener - which was precisely the reason why there was a tendency to increase concert pitch over the centuries in  the first place!

Another important issue: the whole notion of 432 Hz was certainly used to provide rational number ratios as it was originally intended to do in the early 18th century when this tuning reference system was first proposed - but it does not follow from this, that ancient civilizations used 432 Hz as a reference pitch!

Ancient civilizations did not fully even understand the concept of what sound waves actually were, let alone did they own an oscilloscope to measure the precise number of Hertz vibrations per second - unless these were provided by extra-terrestrial beings, which I'm sure most of the "hard core" New Age 432 Hz obsessives also believe built the pyramids in Egypt...


The main irony of anyone who adheres to the 432 Hz thing, is that even in my own lyre improvisation with A at 432 Hz, it was physically impossible even during the course of the length of my improvisation, even for my modern nylon lyre strings to maintain the exact, precise pitch reference of 432 Hz due to the gradual slackening in tension of the strings, the slight imperfections in the uniformity of the stings gauges, the subtle changes in humidity affecting the wood of my lyre etc - it would have been even more impossible for the lyres and harps of antiquity with temperamental & non-uniform gauge strings made of natural fibres such as unpolished wound gut, hessian or silk to maintain their precise pitch for a performance of more than a minute or so, as I have discovered in my own experiments at using wound silk strings on my lyre. This can clearly be heard in my extended length single, "Ancient Lyre Strings", which featured my lyre strung with 100% pure wound silk strings tuned in the wonderfully pure just intonation of antiquity:

The most intriguing observation I made, through, during the course of this performance, was that even with the close approximation to just intonation which can be achieved with natural fibre strings, it was the wonderful purity of the sound of the intervals in just intonation which provided the magic, not the actual reference pitch of the musical mode I was attempting to tune to!

No matter what the starting note of the mode I play in, it is the wonderfully pure ratio of musical intervals in just intonation which makes the difference - just intonation creates intervals which sound almost three dimensional in quality, with an almost tangible intensity, in contrast to the impure compromise of intervals in modern equal temperament, which sound "muddy" in comparison. Compared to just intonation, equal temperament is like a rose without its scent!

Music in just intonation has the effect on the listener, of sounding simultaneously more calming, yet almost magically, at the same time, inspiring - just intonation was the real magic of the music of antiquity, not some arbitrary frequency measured at either 432 Hz or 528 Hz for that matter (which the ancients, with no understanding of the physics of what sound was, could not have ever precisely measured in the first place!).


Music certainly does have a healing quality, as so well told in the Biblical story of how David's lyre soothed the troubled mind of King Saul, but in my opinion, this healing quality was almost certainly not imparted at the level of DNA, as the "hard core" New Agers would have us believe!

Music can literally heal the Soul, because due to our truly archaic, pre-linguistic ability to express emotion through specific sounds, it follows that music is the only artistic medium which communicates the beauty of aesthetic emotion, directly to our higher cognitive faculties - in this way, like a magic carpet, music can transport us from our own inner sufferings and take us on a fantastic journey of inspiration and imagination whilst simultaneously instilling in us, an appreciation of the timeless geometrical symmetry of harmonious musical intervals and in doing so, music can in time, like it once soothed the troubles and tribulations of King Saul, restore the inner harmony of our very own Souls once more...


In closing this blog, I wish to emphasize that despite my often cynical sense of humour, it was not actually my intention to actively offend anybody during the course of my research - I merely wish to extract a few grains of truth from the jumble of unverifiable assertions which presently clutter the actual facts surrounding the 432 Hz thing! I openly welcome any constructively critical comments to this blog, in my effort to get even closer to what new truths can be found...many thanks!



Pippi June 27, 2016 @12:05 am

Hey, Im very happy i found this page im a music producer and for the past 2 years have been amazed by the A 432 pythagorean theory of keys. Its so much more in tune with the body i find it hard to listen to anything western now please any info you can forward to me would help me so much and may be i could send you some of my songs for you to check out? Kind Regards Pippi

Israel Todd May 30, 2016 @06:11 pm Scale of Life vid with David Sereda, its worth your time brother! I love your music, but I need the golden phi ratio 1.618 in my music, how can I get buy your music in this frequency? or in the 528 hz. please email me b/c you hae some of the best tunes that feel good inside when I listen. hard to find music not in the hellish, Belial, 440 hz. thank you very much blessings to you!

Michael March 11, 2016 @09:29 am

BTW, 432 Hz as a reference pitch doesn't go back any further than Verdi. He was the first to ever suggest it as a reference pitch. Mozart and Beethoven tuned somewhere around 422 Hz. As for French pitch, like Verdi later on, they were concerned with vocal health problems and instrument problems that presented during the pitch wars. The Beatles tuned to 435 Hz, then later to 432 Hz after being influenced by Ravi Shankar. 432 Hz sounds nice; it's in the goldilocks zone of not too bright, not too muddy. I've switched to 432 Hz. My latest recordings, in 432 Hz tuning:

anonymous January 09, 2016 @05:32 am

I too am mystified as to whether 432 or 528 or both are mumbo jumbo. What is helping me as a newcomer to studying whether or not this is bunk, is actually questioning what the definition of sound actually is... the "roots", if you will. Where did sound come from? At the creation of the universe, was sound present? Did all life stem from sound? Did the start of the universe? Why does earth emit sounds that can be heard from outer space? Why do stars and other planets? Deeper questions about the actual origins of sound and the study of cymatics - which is the study of sound - I think may help in deciding the battle of truth vs fiction. Cymatics is an actual science. Cymatics. Study it - it is science. From there, then proceed to question the validity of 428 vs 528 mumbo jumbo. Perhaps we should focus on the root of sound and where it started - was it present during the beginning of creation? And why do sand particles respond to different pitch and frequency in cymatics? I hope that helps the curious and the skeptic alike. As long is one is willing to keep an open mind to learn and ask questions, perhaps learning about the origin of sound would be a helpful start.

richard July 14, 2015 @12:28 pm

The most complete and ancient philosophical based living music system we still have comes from the vedic line. Anything that does not correlate with that is probably a corruption. When you find the governing philosophy then you will find the music that fits it. Pierre Grimes PhD has done many vids on the studies of the philosopher kings which include harmony, geometry, music etc from their higher meanings ie states of mind. This gives us an insight into the character of thinking that went on in those days and so the contingent music. From one of the oldest sources, Srimad Bagavatam we have an idea of how people lived at least 5000 years ago SB 1.11.12: The city of Dvārakāpurī was filled with the opulences of all seasons. There were hermitages, orchards, flower gardens, parks and reservoirs of water breeding lotus flowers all over. SB 1.11.13: The city gateway, the household doors and festooned arches along the roads were all nicely decorated with festive signs like plantain trees and mango leaves, all to welcome the Lord. Flags, garlands and painted signs and slogans all combined to shade the sunshine. SB 1.11.14: The highways, subways, lanes, markets and public meeting places were all thoroughly cleansed and then moistened with scented water. And to welcome the Lord, fruits, flowers and unbroken seeds were strewn everywhere. SB 1.11.15: In each and every door of the residential houses, auspicious things like curd, unbroken fruits, sugarcane and full waterpots with articles for worship, incense and candles were all displayed. SB 1.11.18: They hastened toward the Lord on chariots with brāhmaṇas bearing flowers. Before them were elephants, emblems of good fortune. Conchshells and bugles were sounded, and Vedic hymns were chanted. Thus they offered their respects, which were saturated with affection SB 1.11.20: Expert dramatists, artists, dancers, singers, historians, genealogists and learned speakers all gave their respective contributions, being inspired by the superhuman pastimes of the Lord. Thus they proceeded on and on. The description goes on but the quotes are enough to see that these were modern cities with town planning with care and consideration for the beauty of life along with a high culture and manufacturing. These were not the grunting animals living in caves or mud huts that the modern narrative would like us to believe.

Susanne Romey May 30, 2015 @05:27 pm

Dear Michael, I am really grateful for your music and for your thoughts on this topic. I have been thinking about this subject for many years and have come to the same conclusions as you stated that the magical healing quality of music comes from the sounding of pure intervals and not from using a specific tuning ptich such as 432 or 528 hz. I am also interested in the topic of the influence of harmonic intervals in ancient music and was very interested in your discussion. I have always thought that drones may have been prevalent, but the extent of my research is limited. However, I am also one of those "new agers" who believe there was alien technology involved in the construction and purpose of the pyramids, so I still have an open mind about the 432 hz tuning. I have also read the awful reports about Len Horowitz. I am a "starving artist" musician without any resources or time to work on my musical ideas. But at some time I would be interested in exploring composing music using the Greek modes with pure intervals. Thanks you for giving me the inspiration to continue thinking about doing my music. Best wishes, Susanne

Michael March 09, 2015 @12:35 am

It comes down to practical considerations. I play a 6-string, 35" scale bass, using standard B-E-A-D-G-C tuning. When I tune to A440, those strings wind real tight, and no matter how good I am, it's still difficult to play. My callouses get so bad that I sometimes have to take a break until they wear down to a manageable thickness. There are bands that tune sharp of A440, like A442 or A444; it's the pitch inflation wars all over again. Paul McCartney is now tuning to A444. I tried tuning my bass that high, and although it sounded great, I can't see myself playing like that, especially with the complex riffs and and vibratos I do. When vocalists are forced to sing in A440 or above, it takes its toll. Even A440 is difficult for most singers of any vocal range; it goes against the natural tendencies of the human voice. That's why lower pitches were utilized before the pitch inflation wars: singers had longer careers, and more people could aspire to sing professionally. That's why Verdi recommended A432, in keeping with the tuning standard used by previous classical composers that established middle C as 256 hz (i.e. scientific pitch). The French had already standardized A435, and pitch inflation was taking its toll on Italian musicians. A432 was just a balance between A430 (pre-French classical era unofficial standard) and A435. It works better for 12 TET tuning. You can't have perfect tuning in 12 TET; tuning to A430 made middle C slightly flat of 256 hz, and tuning to A435 made middle C somewhere above 258, which was too sharp. A432 tuning puts middle C at 256.87: sharp enough to keep an instrument from dropping noticeably below C256 hz during a concert. After reading about it and trying it on my bass, I'm starting to think it's a good idea. A432 tuning is more dissonant than A440 despite the calming effect (the frequencies of different notes played in unison don't nest quite the same), which causes tension that elevates emotional arousal. I feel the music more playing tuned to A432 than I did playing tuned to A440. The tone is more resonant and less penetrative. That's the secret of low pitch tuning: slacker strings = more bass and low mids = more resonance = greater emotional impact without the stressing effects of more penetrative frequencies. Tuning half a step lower to a reference pitch of A440 works too, but it's too low; it's basically the same as baroque tuning (puts an open A string right around 415 hz). The sound becomes too muddy when you tune that low. Not everyone wants to sound like Nirvana or Pantera, let alone some band that does drop D or drop G tuning. A432 is a perfect compromise, and it reestablishes the scientific pitch of 256 hz as the middle C tuning standard. It's not perfect, but it works for its intended purpose of establishing professional standards that are satisfactory to the health needs of musicians. Nice lyre recording, BTW. You can listen to some of music that I recorded in A440 tuning here:

Diane Box February 12, 2015 @04:21 pm

For a metaphysical perspective on this subject you might enjoy reading "Marcotone The Science of Tone-Color," written by Edward Maryon in 1924. (It may be able to be viewed for free at the

Rick October 12, 2014 @03:28 pm

My introduction to '432 Hz' came through the work of Hans Cousto - specifically his book 'The Cosmic Octave'... Fascinating!

Peter Pringle September 11, 2014 @04:54 am

As concert halls, and the orchestras that played in them, increased in size over the centuries, concert pitch gradually increased as well. This is because the more tension you put into a string, the louder and more resonant that string becomes when it is played. The A=440 standard of the mid 20th century is no longer adhered to by many of the worlds greatest symphony orchestras. Today, the New York Philharmonic tunes to A=442 and the Berlin Philharmonic to A=443 (as do most orchestras in continental Europe).

What Music Really İs September 09, 2014 @10:15 am

Good article Michael, full of factual information. You ask "How on Earth did all this ridiculous 'virtual intellectual Voodoo' come about, and is there any actual body of truth to be gleaned among the mountain of mumbo jumbo?" The answer could be that 432 was introduced by Maria Renold in her book “Intervals, Scales, Tones and the Concert Pitch C = 128 HZ” first published in 1985. As the very title of the book says, she advocated 256 Hz (the double or “octave” of 128) as the fundamental frequency – the first note, and not the arbitrary culturally-defined 10th, used in conjunction with a scale called “The Scale of Twelve True Fifths”. In this scale, just like in “Pythagorean” tuning (a scale attributed to Pythagoras on which Maria Renold based her scale), the 10th note A is 27/16. Maria Renold conducted very simple experiments over the course of 20 years and with many people, the participants preferring 256 (and its 10th of 432) even if 440 was the familiar tone. Because she showed that humans preferred 256 but didn’t explain why, the results of her experiments were taken on, and escalated to our present day into the madness called “tuning to 432″ and the absurd explanations linking to unrelated phenomena and New Age numerology. The most overlooked aspect in all this, even among musicians, is a peculiar way of employing numbers that has been preserved from ancient times, which has been used to convey the oldest form of harmonic knowledge. Almost extinct today, this archaic practice comes from a time when art, science, medicine and spirituality were all part of the same undifferentiated knowledge and philosophy of life. As such, the secret language of ratios encoded in this form of mathematics should not be limited to the interpretation of physical properties of sound and the laws of acoustics alone. The process is simple, and turns any system of ratios (tuning) into a series of integers by finding the least common denominator. Conversely, such a series can be written as ratios by dividing every member by the first and simplifying the fractions. As a definitive example, the tuning 1/1 – 9/8 – 32/27 – 4/3 – 3/2 – 27/16 – 16/9 – 2/1 can only be written as 432 – 486 – 512 – 576 – 648 – 729 – 768 – 864 using the smallest integers. There are no whole numbers smaller than these that can accommodate the above tuning without using ratios. Call this “Pythagorean”, “Dorian”, “Just Intonation”, “Ancient Mesopotamian”, “Diatonic” or whatever (most of these names are misnomers and inaccuracies), the simple fact is that those are not frequencies expressed in Hertz, but harmonics of the harmonic series. It is indeed a coincidence that the 10th note of a certain system has the same value, and the number 432 is definitely not the Hertz rate of the 10th member of a twelve-tone system, but a harmonic/ratio from the harmonic series. There maybe are temples and pyramids built using, among many others, this ratio, but this has absolutely nothing to do with its value in Hertz. The above set of numbers can be easily reproduced by knowing the limits of the system 432:864, and the rules of getting the other members (“cycles of fifths”).This is what 432 really is: 1/1 in a tuning of spiraling intervals between the 2nd and 3rd harmonics.

John Wheeler July 14, 2014 @07:33 am

There is one thing I should mention to you though. The ancients would not have measured frequencies, to be sure, and especially of vibrating strings - but they could and did measure the lengths of vibrating columns of air, and that is the same thing coming from the opposite direction. In Egypt we see indications that the musicians did so precisely. They knew perfectly well that a pipe of the same diameter but precisely half the length will give a pitch an octave higher. They could tune a pipe to Pythagorean intervals and a minor scale (according to one of several pipes found and reconstructed) and also to pentatonic intervals (by the same mastabas which tell us about pipe lengths and the use of chironomy to represent musical tones in an eleven-degree pentatonic modal scale). In principle the ancients could've experimented with the effects of different pipe lengths to see which was most effective in what ways. You could do likewise with a modern slide whistle and you could tune a stringed instrument from that referent "justly" - although I understand that you don't have the ability personally to do this by ear, as I can. China had its own ways of dealing with absolute pitches and so much so that such became part of the charge of the national department of measurements. I understand too that they sought to make them cohere with the cosmic order and as that order changed (by whatever criteria they claimed to use), they changed the referent pitches in music. This is worth running to ground and seeing if this is in fact what they did!

John Wheeler July 14, 2014 @07:24 am

Here are two things I've mentioned to you before on Facebook and hopefully they will add to your data base of verifiable information: 1) "Verdi's A", A = 432Hz, is a Pythagorean major sixth above the referent for modern "scientific tuning", C = 256Hz. Hence the connection, otherwise undocumented so far as I've yet learned, in the eyes of the Schiller Institute between the two pitches. (Why they should do this when our Western instruments aren't tuned to Pythagorean intervals makes no sense to me.) 2) Making certain assumptions about the length of the trumpets of Numbers 10 (an Egyptian royal cubit of 525mm) and their default playing conditions (cool dry air at sea level, i.e., 20 degrees Celsius at a pressure of 1 bar), 432 Hz is a diatonic perfect fifth below the pitch of the trumpets (E = 648Hz). This result carries to three significant digits, but bear in mind the pitch of a trumpet varies with air temperature, humidity and pressure (and thus also with altitude - the trumpets, all else being equal, would always sound lower in Jerusalem than in the Sinai where they were made). How much either factoid has to do with New Age speculation, I have no idea (yet).

Matilda July 09, 2014 @08:59 am

William I agree with you regarding modern sounds being unpleasant- I got a 1960s dial phone as I could not stand the beeping of the push button one!

Matilda July 09, 2014 @08:58 am

Michael, I greatly enjoyed your article- well researched and explained. I agree with you about just intonation- it does sound like 3 d!!! I listen to a lot of classical era music recordings on historical temperaments and the instruments they had then- the sound is awesome! Haydn sonatas played on the fortepiano and in an historical tuning was a revelation to me!

William Glover July 08, 2014 @07:46 pm

This reminds me of so many things I have heard as an archaeologist/ anthropologist, in 25 years of field work I thought I had heard it all, this dovetails with archaeo - acoustics which is now looking at sounds in settings that can be seen to have qualities that enhance sound from voice to instruments. I am sure as a performer you have a deeper understanding of setting, the way buildings and natural settings may add or detract from music. But it seems that from clouds in the sky, the way modern water is treated, has been the subject of 'to be nice' so way out of the box thinking, now from the sound of a dial tone to the music we hear being manipulated for sinister purposes, I will mark this a banner day and look forward to see what comes of this.

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